日本のグローバル・多文化な若者

早稲田大学アジア太平洋研究所センター(WIAPS) 所属のタヌ・ダナウと申します。日本の多文化若者の研究をするために今年3月に来日しました。

研究課題

日本社会がますます多様化されていくにも関わらず、多文化背景を持つ子供や若者の経験に関する研究は今だ限られている。よって、この研究は日本の若者がどのように多彩な形で多文化的影響を受けているかを理解しようとする。例えば次のことを通して:

  • 日本国外経験
  • 学校環境と教育
  • メディア
  • 人間関係(例:家族、友人、コミュニティ等)

研究対象者・参加者

この研究は多文化背景を持つ方を対象とする。例えば、下記のいずれかに該当する方:

  • 子供(18才未満)の頃に海外で3ヶ月以上暮らしたことがある
  • 親のいずれかが海外で生まれた
  • 親のいずれかが日本の少数民族である
  • 海外移動、学校教育、メディア、友人、家族などを通じて子供の頃(18才未満)からバイリンガルである
  • その他*

(*上記のカテゴリーに該当しなくても自分の背景が多文化であると思う方は是非ご連絡ください!)

研究方法

人類学研究(社会学に似ている)でよく使われるインタビューや「参与観察」方法を採用する。

インタビュー

研究参加者のご都合に合わせて下記のように行われる。

  • 時間
    1〜2時間(参加者のご都合に合わせる)
  • 日時・場所
    参加者のご都合に合わせる(オンライン可)
  • 内容・形式
    正式な形式はなく、参加者のライフ・ストーリを始め、上記の研究課題に関連する参加者の経験や感じ方等について気軽な感んじで聞いていく。
  • 録音・許可
    参加者の許可を得た上で録音をさせていただく。もし参加者が18才未満である場合は保護者の許可も必要となる。
  • プライバシー・匿名性
    インタビューは書き写して分析した後、一部出版物に引用されることもあるが、その場合はプライバシーを守るために基本的に仮名が使われる。だが参加者が本名を使って欲しいと言われた場合は参加者の要求に合わせる。
  • コロナ対策
    マスクの着用や距離を保つなど、通常のコロナ感染拡大防止に向けた取組をする。なお、参加者のご希望に合わせて追加対策を行う。

インタビュー過程について:気持ちよく、そして自由に自分の話をすることができてインタビューが楽しいと言われる方がしばしばいる。答えたくない質問に答える必要はないし、インタビューに同意した後でもインタビューの途中や終了後に気が変わった場合は 途中でやめたい・録音を削除してほしいと要求することもできる。その場合、 気が変わった理由を説明する必要もない。参加者がなるべく気持ちよくインタビューに望めるようにしている。

参与観察(必須でない)

人類学では「参与観察」と呼ばれる研究方法が採用されることもある。 つまり、参加者が友人や家族等と過ごす時、または学校や職場で過ごす時の「実際の生活」を研究者が参加者と交流しながら観察することを意味する。 こういった交流により参加者の経験や物の感じ方をより深く理解できる様になるのである。 もちろん、参加者の許可無しでは行われない上、参与観察は必須ではない。インタビューだけに応じたいという方に対しては参与観察は行われない。

研究所属

早稲田大学アジア太平洋研究センター(WIAPS) 特別研究員

国際交流基金 長期研究員

タヌ・ダナウ博士 (Danau Tanu, Ph.D.)

ご質問がある方はお気軽にメール (danau.tanu [アットマーク] gmail.com またはLINE (ID: dtanu)・他のSNSでお問い合わせください。

Thank you!

Anak Muda ‘Multibudaya’ di Jepang

Photo of books, teapots and trinkets on a table, including Growing Up in Transit and Third Culture Kids, arranged in a flatlay

Halo, salam kenal. Nama saya Danau. Sejak Maret tahun ini, saya datang ke Jepang sebagai Visiting Research Fellow di Waseda University untuk meneliti tentang anak muda ‘multikultural’ di Tokyo.

Topik penelitian

Penduduk Jepang makin hari makin beragam. Meskipun begitu, penelitian tentang pengalaman anak muda yang berlatar belakang beragam budaya atau multikultural/multibudaya masih sangat terbatas, terutama yang berbahasa Indonesia.

Penelitian ini berfokus pada pengalaman anak muda di Jepang yang dipengaruhi lebih dari satu budaya pada masa kecil atau masa remaja melalui faktor-faktor seperti berikut:

  • mobilitas (pengalaman tinggal di lebih dari satu negara)
  • sekolah dan pendidikan
  • media sosial and media massa
  • hubungan sosial (misalnya: keluarga, teman, komunitas, dll.)

Peserta penelitian yang dicari

Dalam rangka penelitian ini, seseorang yang berlatar belakang multibudaya adalah seseorang yang:

  • pernah menghabiskan sebagian dari masa kecil atau masa remaja mereka di Jepang (3 bulan atau lebih sebelum berusia 18 tahun), atau
  • setidaknya salah satu orang tuanya lahir di luar Jepang, atau
  • setidaknya salah satu orang tuanya dianggap etnis minoritas di Jepang, atau
  • sejak kecil dwibahasa atau fasih dalam lebih dari satu bahasa, atau
  • yang lainnya*

(*Jika Anda merasa Anda berlatar belakang multikultural tetapi tidak termasuk dalam kategori yang tertera di sini, silahkan kontek saya.)

Metode pengumpulan data

Data kualitatif akan dikumpulkan melalui interview/wawancara (metode utama) dan ‘pengamatan terlibat’ yaitu ‘observasi partisipatif’ (tidak wajib) sesuai dengan metode penelitian di bidang antropologi.

Interview/wawancara

Interview akan dilangsungkan sebagai berikut:

  • Durasi
    1 jam lebih (disesuaikan dengan kesediaan/kesibukan peserta)
  • Jam & lokasi
    Pada waktu dan lokasi yang nyaman bagi peserta
  • Pertanyaan
    Saya tertarik pada masa kecil dan remaja peserta dan pengalaman saat ini yang berkaitan dengan topik penelitian yang tertera diatas. Saya akan bimbing arah percakapan sesuai dengan topik penelitian ini tetapi karena interview antropologi bersifat informal dan santai, maka tidak ada daftar pertanyaan yang harus dijawab. Peserta bebas berbagi sesuka dan sebanyak Anda inginkan.
  • Perekaman & izin
    Interview akan direkam secara audio seizin peserta. Jika peserta berusia dibawah 18 tahun, maka saya akan juga meminta izin interview dari orang tua atau wali (guardian) peserta.
  • Pelindungan data pribadi & anonimitas
    Rekaman interview akan disalin dan dianalisa. Ada kemungkinan sebagian akan dikutip dalam artikel atau publikasi lainnya. Namun, nama asli peserta tidak akan digunakan dalam publikasi atau dimanapun baik secara tertulis maupun secara lisan. Bilamana peserta dikutip dalam publikasi, maka peserta akan diberikan nama samaran untuk memperlindungi identitas dan anonimitas peserta, kecuali jika peserta meminta nama aslinya dipakai dalam publikasi.

Para peserta sering berkata bahwa mereka senang diwawancarai karena cara interviewnya santai dan nyaman untuk berbagi cerita. Jika ada pertanyaan yang tidak ingin dijawab, tidak perlu dijawab. Meskipun sudah bersetuju untuk diwawancara tetapi kemudian berubah pikiran pada waktu interview sedang berlangsung atau sesudah diwawancara, peserta bebas membatalkan interview atau meminta supaya rekamannya dihapus.

pengamatan terlibat (tidak wajib)

Di bidang antroplogi, kami terkadang menggunakan juga metode yang disebut ‘pengamatan terlibat’ atau ‘observasi partisipan’ dimana peneliti ikut serta dalam pergaulan peserta sambil mengamati ‘kehidupan nyata’ peserta, yaitu misalnya di tempat belajar/kerja atau ketika peserta menghabiskan waktu bersama teman atau keluarga. Pengamatan terlibat seringkali dapat membantu peneliti memahami pengalaman peserta riset secara lebih mendalam. Tentu saja pengamatan terlibat tidak akan dilakukan tanpa izin peserta.

Biodata

Dr. Danau Tanu (S3) adalah Visiting Research Fellow di Waseda University Institute of Asia-Pacific Migration (WIAPS) di Tokyo dan penerima beasiswa penelitian jangka panjang yang didanai oleh The Japan Foundation. Untuk informasi lebih lanjut:

Jika pertanyaan, silahkan kontek saya melalui e-mail (danau.tanu [at] gmail.com), LINE (ID: dtanu), atau media sosial lainya. (Email lebih cepat.)

Terima kasih banyak!

Japan’s Multicultural Youth

Hello. Thank you for visiting this page.

My name is Danau Tanu. I am a Visiting Research Fellow at Waseda University.

I would like to interview young people with a multicultural background. Please read below to find out more or select another language.

Topic: What are you researching?

Japan’s population is becoming more diverse but there is very little research on the experiences of children and young people growing up with a multicultural background.

This research focuses on how multicultural youth in Japan are impacted by the following factors:

  • mobility (lived in another country)
  • schooling and education
  • media (including social media)
  • social relations (for example: family, friends, community, etc.)

Participants: Who are you researching?

In this research, a person with a multicultural background is someone who identifies with one or more of the following:

  • spent some of their childhood outside of Japan (3 months or more before age 18),
  • have one or more parent(s) who were born overseas,
  • have one or more parent(s) who are ethnic minorities in Japan,
  • grew up bilingual/multilingual as a result of mobility, schooling, media, friends, family, etc.
  • other*

(*If you feel you are multicultural but don’t fit in the above categories, please let me know, I’d love to hear from you!)

Method: How do you collect data?

As an anthropologist, I will collect qualitative data through interviews (main method) and ‘participant observation’ (optional).

Interviews

I will interview participants as follows:

  • Duration
    1 hour or more (depends on your availability)
  • Time & place
    We can meet at a time and place that is convenient for you.
  • Questions
    I am interested in the participant’s childhood and current experiences relating to the research topic. The interview is informal, so I will guide the general topic of conversation but there are no formal questions. Participants can share as much or as little as they want.
  • Recording & permission
    Interviews will be audio recorded with the your permission. If you are aged 17 years old or younger, I will also ask for permission from your parent or guardian.
  • Privacy & anonymity
    I will later transcribe and analyse the interviews and quote some of it in publications. Unless you specifically request that I use your real name, I will always use pseudonyms to protect your identity, anonymity and privacy.

Participants often tell me that they enjoy being interviewed because I try to make sure they feel comfortable sharing their stories. This means that if you don’t like a question, you don’t have to answer it. Also, you can say ‘yes’ to an interview and then change your mind later during or after the interview. For example, if you change your mind after the interview, you can ask me to delete the recording. You don’t even have to explain why you changed your mind.

Participant observation (Optional)

Anthropologists also sometimes use a method called ‘participant observation’. This means we hang out with people ‘in real life’, such as at work or when they spend time with friends and family. This helps us gain more in-depth understanding of their experiences. But I will only do this with your permission of course!

Affiliation: Who are you and how can I contact you?

Dr. Danau Tanu is a Visiting Research Fellow at the Waseda University Institute of Asia-Pacific Migration (WIAPS) in Tokyo, Japan. She is on a long-term research fellowship funded by The Japan Foundation. You can also learn more about her past research and background.

If you have any questions, please feel free to ask via email (danau.tanu [at] gmail.com, LINE (ID: dtanu), or social media. (Email is faster.)

Thank you!

The Hidden Curriculum

Danau Tanu

“Racism” and “global citizenship” sound incompatible—like oil and water. This past year, however, we’ve been forced to acknowledge that systemic racism exists even within the “international school ecosystem,” to borrow AIELOC’s expression.

It exists even in international schools with a diverse student body. But how?

According to Nick, a North American teacher at an international school in Indonesia, it gets taught as part of the “hidden curriculum.”

“It’s what we say we teach, which I believe we believe in and we’re trying to do, but by the very makeup of the institution, we are teaching this hidden agenda,” Nick explained. “It’s not like anybody’s setting out to try to teach it, but it’s being taught because it’s our daily experience here.”

Pennies before rupiah

An alumna of Nick’s school believed the curriculum shaped the cultural hierarchy on campus. Lianne said, “I think because our teachers were mostly Americans, a lot of our study material was based out of the States. I learned what a penny was before I learned about the Indonesian rupiah!”

Photo of a penny (one cent) from the United States of America by Adam Nir on Unsplash

Lianne was referring to the math problems in her textbooks, which used currencies that were not used locally.

“And social studies was always about [western] history before world history,” Lianne added. Scientists and literary authors also mostly had English or other European names.

But it isn’t just about who or what is included in the textbooks. It is also about what is omitted.

Missing pieces

Large portions of the world do not appear in these textbooks. Or, if they do, it’s tokenistic.

By high school graduation, an international school student who grew up in Asia might have learnt about the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and its role in the start of a major war between European powers. They might also be able to write essays on Medieval Europe and the European Renaissance.

Yet, they might not know the significance of the 1955 Bandung Conference in Indonesia when the heads of newly decolonized African and Asian states held a large-scale summit for the first time. They might know very little about Asian history and may not even have heard of the Ottoman Empire. It is also likely that they have never learnt about the legacies of colonialism in present-day political structures.

Students may be familiar with the European origins of “Roman numerals” but they might not have heard of the Indo-Arabic origins of the numbers they use daily.

After graduating, Lianne went on to study English literature in Australia. “Then I go to university,” she recalls, “and it’s like, ooh, colonization? Hmm, how come I didn’t study that at school? Duh, we were being colonized!” Lianne let out a laugh.

But it isn’t just about textbooks.

Konferensi Asia-Afrika, the first large-scale Asia Africa summit — also known as the Bandung Conference held in Bandung, Indonesia in 1955.

The operating system

“I honestly think that it was just the system,” Lianne offered. “It was the operating system of the school: the workbook, the teachers, and then most of the kids were of course American kids. It’s the oil kids, Mobile Oil, Castrol, right?”

Nick gave a more specific example. “For certainly the vast majority of our students,” he pointed out, “they see Indonesians in subservient positions—primarily drivers, nannies, maids, gardeners, secretaries, electricians, and what have you.”

The large number of local cleaning, gardening and security staff on campus generally remained nameless and faceless to students and teachers.

“How many Indonesians do they see in positions of power?” Nick asked. “They don’t, right?”

Most of the teachers were white, including Nick. At the time of my interview with him, all five of the leadership positions in the high school administration were filled by white men. This was despite the use of international recruitment processes in a female-dominated industry.

Token diversity?

Although there were some non-white educators at the school, this does not prove the absence of racial bias in the hiring process.

It is possible that some were hired because they fit the existing images or stereotypes of non-white educators. Around half of them taught languages other than English. Only two were Black: a male physical education teacher and a female guidance counselor.

While I had not given it much thought at the time, it was uncanny to hear Ryan Haynes, a counselor who works at another international school, say in an interview recently on The Global Chatter podcast that people often assume he’s a physical education teacher due to the stereotype of Black men as athletic. Haynes also noted that guidance counselors are sought after internationally.

Internalizing the structures

The racial composition of those in positions of authority does not go unnoticed by students.

Teachers like Nick could see the negative impact of the hidden curriculum on their own children who also attended the school. Nick, who was married to an Indonesian, observed that his seven-year-old, mixed-race daughter looked down on Indonesians.

Racism in international education. Growing Up in Transit - in paperback poster
Growing Up in Transit, published in 2018, is the research that forms the basis for this article.

A senior student at Nick’s school also shared a story that illustrates how students unknowingly absorb the racial biases of a hidden curriculum. “One of the things that I find really strange is,” said Tim, “when I’m here, most of the workers in McDonalds … in all these restaurants are Asian, and then going back to the States and having [to give] orders to someone who is white or Caucasian is really strange to me. It’s really weird. I don’t know why.”

Tim was not used to seeing white people in working class occupations serving others. He had expected them to be in positions of authority.

Enduring patterns

The demographic makeup of international schools has undergone major changes across the world over the past few decades. But little has changed in terms of the hidden curriculum. Nick and his students’ description of the school in 2009 closely echoed that of Lianne’s experience in the 1980s to 90s.

Today, the same stories are still being told in many places. Last year, the Organisation to Decolonise International Schools (ODIS) led by two recent graduates of international schools stated, “Many international school alumni have testified that their education was too Westernised and centred on white culture, history and achievements.”

This does not mean, however, that international schools have completely failed.

Although he was critical, Nick also said, “There’s no other school I wanna send my children to. I really believe that it’s an incredible [education] that we’re offering—the multiculturalism and all of those aspects that are powerful and good.”

But he added, “There is this dark underbelly that isn’t being addressed there. I think it poisons the system to some degree.”

Danau Tanu, PhD, is an anthropologist and the author of Growing Up in Transit: The Politics of Belonging at an International School, the first book on structural racism in international schools. Available now in paperback. www.danautanu.com 

Portions of this article first appeared in Growing Up in Transit, edited for this post. Pseudonyms have been used for all interviewees to protect their privacy.

This article was originally published in The International Educator (TIE Online) on 16 February 2021.

Related articles:

Osmosis: When children internalize racism through school (October 2020)

Strange Bedfellows (September 2020)

Osmosis: When Children Internalize Racism Through School

Danau Tanu

When there’s not a pandemic on, children spend an enormous chunk of their lives—at least seven hours a day, five days a week, 180 days a year—at school. It gives them plenty of time to internalize the social hierarchies that they experience at school. This includes social hierarchies that are informed by race—the kind of subtle racism that happens even when nobody intends for it to happen.

So, what happens when children internalize these racist structures?

Those structures become the stick by which children measure themselves, their peers, their parents, and their world.

Children learn these structures at a very young age through, among other things, the language they speak, the authority figures they see, and the curriculum they learn.

Growing Up in Transit, published in 2018, is the research that forms the basis for this article.

The power of English

“When I spoke English, I felt smart!” Lianne laughed as she looked back on her childish self when I interviewed her at her kitchen table in the condominium that she shared with her Indonesian husband.

Lianne is an international school alumna whose father is Singaporean and mother is Indonesian. Lianne didn’t learn English until she started attending kindergarten at an English-medium international school in Indonesia. Up until then, she spoke Indonesian at home. So, when she first started school, she was placed in an “ESOL (English for Speakers of Other Languages)” class.

It did not take long for Lianne to learn that English was a language of power. She soon learned to use English to challenge her mother’s authority.

“My mom spoke to me in Indonesian. My mom speaks great English but she prefers to speak in her native tongue. But, you know, the more I learned English, the more I was able to talk back to her in English. And it made me feel smart… so much more clever than my mom!”

Lianne remembers that she also picked up hand and facial gestures at school that she would deliberately use at home knowing that those mannerisms were foreign to her Indonesian mother.

Unbeknownst to Lianne at the time, her mother had continued to speak to her in Indonesian from a desire to pass on her heritage. “Later on I find out, when I’m eighteen or whatever, she didn’t want me to lose my native tongue.”

Standing on a pedestal

The sense of superiority that Lianne picked up at school spilled over into her views towards fellow Indonesians besides her mother. While she now no longer judges others for their accent or fluency in English, she admits she was not like that as a child.

Photo by Ivan Shilov on Unsplash

“When I was a little kid, I would’ve been a complete snob about it because it means I’m much more superior.” Lianne explains that she learned these attitudes through the international school. “All of a sudden you’re on a pedestal. There was a feeling of superiority because of the affiliation, because of the command of language, because of people you hang out with, because of the extracurricular activities that were bountiful.”

As a child, Lianne says that she felt her international school “was much more advanced, if not interesting, than the local schools.”

White like Dad

Nick, a white American teacher at an international school, was also candid about the way his mixed-race daughter, Lara, internalized racism. “It’s weird because Lara is actually a little bit of a racist. She really kind of looks down on Indonesians,” said Nick.

According to Nick, Lara refuses to identify as Indonesian like her mother, and instead chooses to identify as white, like her father. “I made some sort of a deprecating joke about being the only bule [pronounced ‘boo-leh’, Indonesian slang for ‘white people’],” Nick recalled of a family dinner, “and Lara’s like, ‘No, I’m a bule.’” Nick said he tried to explain to his daughter that she is “mixed” but Lara rejected the label. “‘No, no, no, I’m bule’—that’s the way she sees herself,” Nick continued.

Nick taught at the same international school that his daughter attended. While he firmly believed in the multiculturalism that the school promoted, he didn’t feel the school was doing enough. “I just don’t want them to look down on their mother because they go to school in this environment,” he worried.

Nick believed that nobody at the school was intentionally teaching racism, but that it was being taught anyway because “there’s institutionalized racism.” He added, “I think it’s hard to escape that. I can see that that is part of the culture that my daughters are growing up in and that concerns me.”

Unlearning racism

As adults, many who have internalized the belief that their own kind are inferior may come to terms with their mistake and recognize the pain it had inflicted on others and themselves. They may learn to keep their racist attitudes in check by not acting on them. 

But to unlearn and dismantle something that was implicitly absorbed and internalized over 12 or more years of daily exposure at school—and often reaffirmed outside of school—takes time.

Prevention is the better antidote.


Danau Tanu, PhD, is an anthropologist and the author of 
Growing Up in Transit: The Politics of Belonging at an International School, the first book on structural racism in international schools. Available now in hardback and eBook. Portions of this article first appeared in Growing Up in Transit and have been edited for clarity. Pseudonyms are used for research participants who appear in this article.

This article was originally published in The International Educator (TIE Online) on 14 October 2020. It has been edited for clarity.

Further learning

Language & Power: Stories from Asia – Third Culture Kids of Asia discuss how language fluency intersects with social hierarchies in shaping their childhoods and view of the world. Listen on Third Culture Stories, a podcast by TCKs of Asia.

A Foreigner in My Own Family: The Hidden Loss of Language & Intimacy – When a child’s strongest language is different from that of their family, it can create a sense of cultural disconnection that affects the parent-child relationship, even into adulthood. An online forum hosted by TCKs of Asia on October 6, 2020.