日本的多元文化儿童和年轻人

Photo of books, teapots and trinkets on a table, including Growing Up in Transit and Third Culture Kids, arranged in a flatlay

我叫 Danau TANU(中文名叫陈烜兰),来自早稻田大学亚太研究中心 (WIAPS)。 今年3月份我来到日本为了对日本的多元文化青年人进行研究。

我父亲是印尼华人,母亲是日本人。 我会说一点中文但是不大好,所以以下内容大部分用日语写了。对不起,请谅解。

研究課題

尽管日本社会越来越变得多元化,对具有外国文化影响而且在日本长大的儿童和年轻人的研究还少。 因此,本研究旨在了解在日本长大的儿童和年轻人如何在许多方面受到各种文化影响。 例如通过:

  • 移動・移民・転校
  • 学校環境と教育
  • メディア(媒体)
  • 人間関係(例:家族、友人/朋友、コミュニティ等)

研究対象者

多文化背景を持ちながら日本と何らかの接点がある大人や子供*を研究対象とする(現在の年齢は問わない)。例えば、日本または海外で日本教育を受けたことがありながら、下記のいずれかに該当する方:

  • 子供(18才未満)の頃に海外で3ヶ月以上暮らしたことがある
  • 親のいずれかが海外で生まれた
  • 親のいずれかが日本の少数民族である
  • 海外移動、学校教育、メディア、友人、家族などを通じて子供の頃(18才未満)からバイリンガルである
  • その他**

*18才未満の方は親の許可も必要とする
**上記のカテゴリーに該当しなくても自分の背景が多文化であると思う方は是非ご連絡ください!

研究方法

人類学研究(社会学に似ている)でよく使われるインタビューや「参与観察」方法を採用する。

インタビュー

研究参加者のご都合に合わせて下記のように行われる。

  • 時間
    1.5〜2時間(参加者のご都合に合わせる)
  • 日時・場所
    参加者のご都合に合わせる(オンライン可)
  • 内容・形式
    正式な形式はなく、参加者のライフ・ストーリを始め、上記の研究課題に関連する参加者の経験や感じ方等について気軽な感んじで聞いていく。
  • 録音・許可
    参加者の許可を得た上で録音をさせていただく。もし参加者が18才未満である場合は保護者の許可も必要となる。
  • プライバシー・匿名性
    インタビューは書き写して分析した後、一部出版物に引用されることもあるが、その場合はプライバシーを守るために基本的に仮名が使われる。だが参加者が本名を使って欲しいと言われた場合は参加者の要求に合わせる。
  • コロナ対策
    マスクの着用や距離を保つなど、通常のコロナ感染拡大防止に向けた取組をする。なお、参加者のご希望に合わせて追加対策を行う。(研究者は3回摂取済み)

インタビュー過程について:気持ちよく、そして自由に自分の話をすることができてインタビューが楽しいと言われる方がしばしばいる。答えたくない質問に答える必要はないし、インタビューに同意した後でもインタビューの途中や終了後に気が変わった場合は 途中でやめたい・録音を削除してほしいと要求することもできる。その場合、 気が変わった理由を説明する必要もない。参加者がなるべく気持ちよくインタビューに望めるようにしている。

参与観察(必須でない)

人類学では「参与観察」と呼ばれる研究方法が採用されることもある。 つまり、参加者が友人や家族等と過ごす時、または学校や職場で過ごす時の「実際の生活」を研究者が参加者と交流しながら観察することを意味する。 こういった交流により参加者の経験や物の感じ方をより深く理解できる様になるのである。 もちろん、参加者の許可無しでは行われない上、参与観察は必須ではない。インタビューだけに応じたいという方に対しては参与観察は行われない。

参加方法

「参加したい」または「研究についてもっと知りたい・質問がある」と思った方は下記の連絡用紙をご記入くださればこちらから連絡いたします。または、下記の問い合わせ先までお気軽に直接ご連絡ください。

研究結果・アウトプット

多文化アイデンティティと教育に関する学問に貢献するため、データを転写し、分析した後、学術雑誌(人類学、社会学、移民研究、教育関連の雑誌等)に調査結果を出版し公開する。また、より多くの人に多文化になりつつある日本とその教育のあり方をを理解して頂くため、調査結果を新聞や雑誌の記事(教育関連の雑誌等)として出版し公開する。データの量と今後の研究資金調達の機会に応じて、調査結果を本として出版する可能性もある。英語で出版することが多いかと思いますが(日本における英語雑誌や新聞での記載を含む)、できる限り日本語でも出版したい。

Photo of the Waseda University Uni Shop & Cafe 125. Outdoor seating in the front, trees in the background.
早稲田大学キャンパス内の Uni Shop & Cafe 125

研究所属

早稲田大学アジア太平洋研究センター(WIAPS) 特別研究員

国際交流基金 長期研究員

タヌ・ダナウ博士 (Danau Tanu, Ph.D.)

お問い合わせ

ご質問がある方はお気軽にご連絡ください:

Thank you!

Transitions & the Hidden Curriculum – SPAN Symposium

How does mobility and structural racism intersect in international schools and affect students?

This is the e-handout for the online presentation for the SPAN Symposium held on 5-6 March 2022. It includes a list of resources mentioned in the presentation and additional resources.

Image of an iceberg. The tip is above the water surface but most of it is submerged. The tip is labeled 'International mindedness' and the submerged portion is labeled 'hidden curriculum'
The Hidden Curriculum. Adapted from graphics designed by Mifune Takashi at irasutoya.com. Graphics copyright: Mifune Takashi.

Core topics

  • How does the hidden curriculum of structural racism show up in international schools?
  • What happens when a child’s identity mirrors are distorted?
  • What does internalized racism look like for international school students?
  • How do the hidden narratives told by school staff impact students?
  • How does transition issues related to mobility intersect with issues of structural racism?

Main text

Growing Up in Transit: The Politics of Belonging at an International SchoolDanau Tanu, 2018. 

Resources mentioned in the presentation (in order of appearance)

Safe Passage: How mobility affects people & what international schools should do about it. Doug Ota, 2014.

Third Culture Kids: Growing Up Among Worlds, 3rd Edition. David Pollock, Dr. Ruth E. Van Reken and Michael Pollock, 2017.

Children At Promise: 9 principles to help kids thrive in an at risk world. By Dr. Tim Stuart, 2003.

‘Third Culture Kids: The Return Home’ by Tim Brantingham in Sandwich Parenting.

Additional resources

TCKs of Asia live forums & Third Culture Stories podcast. Highly recommended for those who want to better understand the experiences of Asian third culture kids. Topics covered:

TCKs of Asia w team profile pics

If your children are living away from the family with guardians or in a dorm, see also: Third Culture Kids & Parachute Kids – Building Their Resilience with experts Dr. Tim Stuart and Dr. Jang Eun Cho. Co-hosted by Dr. Danau Tanu & Sundae Bean.


Misunderstood: The Impact of Growing Up Overseas in the 21st Century. Tanya Crossman, 2016. See also www.tanyacrossman.com

For more resources, see here.

Growing Up in Transit: Diversity, Equity & Inclusion & the Politics of Belonging at an International School

This is the e-handout for the online Parent Session (English) in Singapore. It includes a list of resources mentioned in the presentation, the slide deck and additional resources.

Image of an iceberg. The tip is above the water surface but most of it is submerged. The tip is labeled 'International mindedness' and the submerged portion is labeled 'hidden curriculum'
The Hidden Curriculum. Adapted from graphics designed by Mifune Takashi at irasutoya.com. Graphics copyright: Mifune Takashi.

Core topics

  • Hidden curriculum 
  • Identity development (mirror concept)
  • Cultural gaps with family
  • Internalised racism

Themes

  • Being ‘seen’
  • The power of listening

Slide deck

The slide deck from the workshop is available in PDF format below.

Main text

Growing Up in Transit: The Politics of Belonging at an International SchoolDanau Tanu, 2018. 

Resources (in order of appearance)

Decolonise IB: How international school alumni are mobilising to diversify the expat curriculum‘ (June 2020) in Medium by Xoài David, co-founder of ODIS (see below).

ODIS: A Student-Led Movement to Decolonise International Schools‘ (September 2020) in TIE Online by Xoài David and Anna Clara Fontoura Fernandes Reynolds, co-founders of ODIS.

Organisation to Decolonise International Schools (ODIS)

ISC Research: The international school student profile – The 2021 Report

Third Culture Kids: Growing Up Among Worlds, 3rd Edition. David Pollock, Dr. Ruth E. Van Reken and Michael Pollock, 2017.

Misunderstood: The Impact of Growing Up Overseas in the 21st Century. Tanya Crossman, 2016. See also www.tanyacrossman.com

Salah Asuhan (Never the Twain) by Abdoel Muis. First published in 1928.

‘Third Culture Kids: The Return Home’ by Tim Brantingham in Sandwich Parenting.

TCKs of Asia w team profile pics

TCKs of Asia live forums & Third Culture Stories podcast.

If your children are living away from the family with guardians or in a dorm, see also: Third Culture Kids & Parachute Kids – Building Their Resilience with experts Dr. Tim Stuart and Dr. Jang Eun Cho. Co-hosted by Dr. Danau Tanu & Sundae Bean.


Safe Passage: How mobility affects people & what international schools should do about it. Doug Ota, 2014.

Boarding School Syndrome review – education and the pain of separation

Letters Never Sent, a global nomad’s journey from hurt to healing by Ruth E. Van Reken.

For additional resources, see Resources section.

Breakout Sessions

Copyright: Mifune Takashi at irasutoya.com

BREAKOUT #1: Cultural gaps & family relations (8min)

Q. Do you experience any challenging cultural gaps between you & your child/children? Please describe it. How has it affected your relationship with them? 

BREAKOUT #2: Self-reflection: Being ‘seen’ (8min)

  • Q1. Describe a time when you felt seen by a teacher (or any adult). Why did you feel seen?
  • Q2. Describe a time when you did not feel seen by a teacher (or any adult). Why did you not feel seen?
INSTRUCTIONS

Work in pairs. 8 minutes total.

  • Step 1: Speaker shares story (3 min)
  • Step 2: The Listener retell the Speaker’s story using ‘Active Listening’ skills (1 min)
  • Step 3: Swap roles. Repeat steps 1 & 2
ACTIVE LISTENING

Be neutral. Do not judge.
Be attentive (nod, etc), patient and don’t fill the silences.

Reflect back to the speaker what they said. Use their words as much as possible. Do not interpret. Do not add your opinion.

Being ‘Seen’: Countering the hidden curriculum of international schools & its impact on students (Notes)

This is the e-handout for the online workshop for Learning for Leaders. It includes a list of resources mentioned in the presentation, the slide deck and additional resources.

Image of an iceberg. The tip is above the water surface but most of it is submerged. The tip is labeled 'International mindedness' and the submerged portion is labeled 'hidden curriculum'
The Hidden Curriculum. Adapted from graphics designed by Mifune Takashi at irasutoya.com. Graphics copyright: Mifune Takashi.

Core topics

  • Hidden curriculum
  • Internalised racism & identity
  • Identifying cultural gaps & privilege
  • Role of educators

Themes

  • Finding common ground
  • Being ‘seen’
  • The simple things

Slide deck

The slide deck from the workshop is available in PDF format below.

Main text

Growing Up in Transit: The Politics of Belonging at an International SchoolDanau Tanu, 2018. 

Resources (in order of appearance)

‘Third Culture Kids: The Return Home’ by Tim Brantingham in Sandwich Parenting.

Misunderstood: The Impact of Growing Up Overseas in the 21st Century. Tanya Crossman, 2016. See also www.tanyacrossman.com

Third Culture Kids: Growing Up Among Worlds, 3rd Edition. David Pollock, Dr. Ruth E. Van Reken and Michael Pollock, 2017.

Children At Promise: 9 principles to help kids thrive in an at risk world. By Dr. Tim Stuart, 2003.


I was inspired to use ‘active listening’ by:

Isabelle Min, professional coach, mediator and facilitator. Founder of Transition Catalyst Korea (TCK) Institute www.tck.or.kr

Jessica Wei Huang, International Educator, Leader, & Coach, currently Vice Principal at UWCSEA. www.jessicaweihuang.com


Growing Up in Transit in the Oxford IB ToK Course Book

Why Are All the Black Kids Sitting Together in the Cafeteria? by Dr. Beverly Tatum

Oxford IB Diploma Programme: IB Theory of Knowledge Course Book. Marija Uzunova Dang and Arvin Singh Uzunov Dang. Published by the Oxford University Press (2020). (You can also listen to the co-authors discuss the importance of teaching Knowledge & Politics to high school students.)

TCKs of Asia & Third Culture Stories podcast.

TCKs of Asia w team profile pics

The Global Imaginary of International School Communities by Dr. Heather Meyer (2021). A detailed account of how the concept of internationalism is used to exclude local students. (Based on ethnographic research at an international school in Germany.)

Safe Passage: How mobility affects people & what international schools should do about it. Doug Ota, 2014.

Safe Passage Across Networks (SPAN) Symposium, March 5-6, 2021. For registration details click here.

Third Culture Kids & Parachute Kids – Building Their Resilience with experts Dr. Tim Stuart and Dr. Jang Eun Cho. Co-hosted by Dr. Danau Tanu & Sundae Bean.

The Strength of Weak Ties: for Campus Dynamics & Recruitment

For well being: Investing a little time to develop weak ties with students may help them feel more ‘seen’ and help the campus feel more inclusive

For recruitment: The concept of weak ties has been widely applied to diversifying job recruitment pools

Original study: The concept of weak ties was originally developed to study what type of networking is useful for job search


Alumni voice

Organisation to Decolonise International Schools

ISC Research: The international school student profile – The 2021 Report

ODIS logo
anti-racism in international education - AIELOC Community Visioning

Association of International Educators & Leaders of Color (AIELOC)


For more resources, see here or the resources tab in the website menu.


Breakout Sessions

Copyright: Mifune Takashi at irasutoya.com
INSTRUCTIONS

Work in pairs. 8 minutes total.

  • Step 1: Speaker shares story (3 min)
  • Step 2: The Listener retell the Speaker’s story using ‘Active Listening’ skills (1 min)
  • Step 3: Swap roles. Repeat steps 1 & 2
ACTIVE LISTENING

Be neutral. Do not judge.
Be attentive (nod, etc), patient and don’t fill the silences.

Reflect back to the speaker what they said. Use their words as much as possible. Do not interpret. Do not add your opinion.

BREAKOUT 1 – Self-reflection: Being ‘seen’

  • Q1. Describe a time when you felt seen by a teacher (or any adult). Why did you feel seen?
  • Q2. Describe a time when you did not feel seen by a teacher (or any adult). Why did you not feel seen?

BREAKOUT 2 – Self-reflection: Privilege

Q1. Describe a story that might indicate that you or your family doesn’t have privilege.

Q2. Describe an area in which you benefit from the existing social or historical context. 

Book Talk: Growing Up in Transit – From Idea Through Development & Impact

This is the e-handout for the webinar presentation for the Book Talk. It includes a list of resources mentioned in the presentation, the slide deck and additional resources.

Core topics

We cover the origin of the book, how it developed and what shaped it, as well as its reception, how it has impacted audiences, and how her thinking has continued to develop since its publication.

Themes

  • Finding common ground
  • Being ‘seen’
  • The simple things

Slide deck

The slide deck from the workshop is available in PDF format.

Main text

Growing Up in Transit: The Politics of Belonging at an International SchoolDanau Tanu, 2018. 

Resources

Third Culture Kids: Growing Up Among Worlds, 3rd Edition. David Pollock, Ruth E. Van Reken and Michael Pollock, 2017.

Safe Passage: How mobility affects people & what international schools should do about it. Doug Ota, 2014.

Children At Promise: 9 principles to help kids thrive in an at risk world. Tim Stuart, 2003.

TCKs of Asia & Third Culture Stories podcast.

‘Third Culture Kids: The Return Home’ by Tim Brantingham in Sandwich Parenting.